The Republic of Sudan is a country located in East Africa. The Republic of Sudan became a sovereign state in 1956 with assistance from Egypt and Britain.

After independence, a conflict arose between the Sudanese government, which was based in the north, and rebel groups, which were based in the south. After its independence, the conflict developed into a civil war between North and South Sudan.

The civil war in the new nation was sparked by internal political rivalries between President Salva Kiir Maryadit and Vice President Riek Machar Teny Dhurgon, which later developed into ethnic divisions in different parts of the country.

Particularly in the conflict between the South and the North, the United Nations has played a role by establishing 3 peace mission programs, namely: UNSFA, UNMIS, and UNMISS.

Conflict background

This civil war lasted from 1956 to 2011. The following are the factors that contributed to the conflict:

  1. The differences in ethnicity, religion, and culture are very striking between the North and the South.
  2. Communities in the Southern region reject the application of Islamic law in Sudan.
  3. Economic, political and educational disparities between North and South.
  4. The desire of the people of the South to be independent and break away from the influence of the North.

The course of the civil war

In this agreement, black Sudanese people are often used as slaves by Arab citizens. This causes a social and political divide between Arab citizens and black groups in Sudan. During the post-independence governmental transition period, the North’s political parties were able to win the parliamentary elections in the Republic of Sudan. The Northern government tends to be discriminatory towards Southern society. This gave rise to an armed resistance movement in the South.

In the book History of Africa (2016) by Darsiti Soeratman, the civil war in Sudan began to subside after the emergence of the SSLM. SSLM was formed in 1971 by Joseph Lagu with the aim of organizing the Southern independence movement. In 1972, Utara and SSLM agreed to sign the Addis Ababa Agreement for the sake of peace for the Republic of Sudan. In the agreement, there will be the formation of an autonomous government in the South. However, in reality, it is not in accordance with the expectations of the people of the South. In 1983, the second Sudanese civil war broke out, caused by the Islamization of the Republic of Sudan by Ja’afar Nimeiri.

End of war War

The Brotherhood of Sudan ended following the conclusion of a comprehensive peace agreement in 2005. The agreement provided for the holding of a referendum for the people of the South. The referendum resulted in independence for the South. In 2011, the Republic of South Sudan was formed and received international recognition from the United Nations.

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